Absolute Quantification: AQUA

AQUA strategy is for the absolute quantification (AQUA) of proteins and their modification states. Peptides are synthesized with incorporated stable isotopes as ideal internal standards to mimic native peptides formed by proteolysis. These synthetic peptides can also be prepared with covalent modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, etc.) that are chemically identical to naturally occurring posttranslational modifications. Such AQUA internal standard peptides are then used to precisely and quantitatively measure the absolute levels of proteins and post-translationally modified proteins after proteolysis by using a selected reaction monitoring analysis in a tandem mass spectrometer.